I'm not going to dig up data. I've lived in Dublin Ireland, Freiburg Germany, and Melbourne Australia. I've traveled to some 40 countries, taking an interest in how their transit systems stack up.Again, please support that assertion with data.
Our inadequate transit is the problem, and taxing the car should be tied specifically to projects to improve transit transformatively. Otherwise, you're penalizing people for living.
From my personal experience it is far cheaper to drive here than in any other city I've lived in outside the US.
As to your second point. You're right, but an emphasis needs to be placed on reducing the number of private cars traveling in to the city center. To do this you fund public transit. It makes sense to fund public transit by taxing private cars in the city center. You're not penalizing people for living, you're penalizing people for living a certain way, an outdated and unsustainable way.