Nope, Ruggles was 100% new construction 1979-87. The site was just Northeastern parking beforehand (and before that, railroad shops/industrial). There never previously was a station at that site - Back Bay and Roxbury Crossing were the nearest.*
*Before Back Bay opened in 1899, there was a minor stop at Camden/Gainsborough.
"Chickering" was what the station @ Camden/Gainesborough was called. Sited at present-day Mass Ave. OL station on the spot where the rear exit-only iron maiden gates empty onto those cut streets, and was at a grade crossing. Eliminated when the B&P did the mass grade separation project of the SW Corridor in the mid-1890's. All other formerly at-grade stops got post-separation replacements reopening on the same day in 1897, but Chickering was scrubbed entirely in favor of Back Bay.
All other current OL stops on the SW Corridor had RR-era equivalents at one point except
- OL Roxbury Crossing = B&P Roxbury
- OL Jackson Square = B&P Heath St.
- OL Stony Brook = B&P Boylston St.
- OL Green St. = B&P Jamaica Plain
Local service to all of those + Forest Hills ended 9/29/1940. The 1897 Forest Hills platform was reactivated in mid-1973, then of course rebuilt with the SW Corridor cut to the modern equivalent. Ruggles was the proverbial "shit sandwich" replacement the neighborhood had to swallow for moving the Orange Line away from the Dudley bus depot, with the hyper-distended Dudley-Ruggles-Rox X'ing around the block bus loopage replacing the clean integrated terminal. Hence, the gigantic busways. The CR platform was to goose its utilization by bringing the Needham Line into the bus transfer from the outer neighborhoods, but of course it's taken them 30 years to figure out a coherent strategy for leveraging the Purple Line mode share in any usable way. Growth of Northeastern around it has made Ruggles come into its own as a high-leverage node in its own right and be a lot less "shit sandwichy", but the bus movements from Dudley Terminal are still really ham-fisted. Melnea Cass rebuild should help a whole lot, but it's always going to be a dissatisfyingly unclean interface compared to the old Orange + single-node bus Dudley Terminal.